Neuro-Ophthalmology Panel

SEQmethod-seq-icon Our Sequence Analysis is based on a proprietary targeted sequencing method OS-Seq™ and offers panels targeted for genes associated with certain phenotypes. A standard way to analyze NGS data for finding the genetic cause for Mendelian disorders. Results in 21 days. DEL/DUPmethod-dup-icon Targeted Del/Dup (CNV) analysis is used to detect bigger disease causing deletions or duplications from the disease-associated genes. Results in 21 days. PLUSmethod-plus-icon Plus Analysis combines Sequence + Del/Dup (CNV) Analysis providing increased diagnostic yield in certain clinical conditions, where the underlying genetic defect may be detectable by either of the analysis methods. Results in 21 days.

Test code: OP1301

The Blueprint Genetics Neuro-Ophthalmology Panel is a 26 gene test for genetic diagnostics of patients with clinical suspicion of nystagmus, optic atrophy or progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

This covers genes associated with both isolated and syndomic neuro-ophthalmological diseases.The inheritance may by autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X-linked. This panel includes the Optic Atrophy Panel.

About Neuro-Ophthalmology

Neuro-ophthalmological disorders refer to a group of diseases that affect vision, control of eye movements, or pupillary reflexes. This entity includes diseases restricted to the visual system and systemic diseases in which the neuro-ophthalmologic sign is accompanied with a spectrum of other neurological symptoms. Optic atrophy affects primarily the retinal ganglion cells and nerve fiber layer of the retina leading to decreased visual acuity (see the description of Optic Atrophy Panel for details). Congenital nystagmus is defined as conjugated, spontaneous and involuntary ocular oscillations that appear at birth or during the first three months of life. Binocular vision and color vision are normal and visual acuity is typically better than 6/12. Mutations in the X-chromosomal gene FRMD7 explain approximately 85% of patients with congenital nystagmus. Female mutation carriers can be affected. The prevalence of congenital nystagmus is estimated to be 1:3,000. Examples of syndromes associated with eye movement problems are ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 and 2, caused by mutations in APTX and SETX, respectively; horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis is caused by mutations in ROBO3. Mutations in TUBB3 are associated with an autosomal dominant strabismus syndrome called congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles. Mitochondrial diseases frequently manifest neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms and signs. Progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) is characterized by weakness of the eye muscles. The symptoms in PEO include drooping eyelids (ptosis) and weakness or paralysis of the muscles that move the eye (ophthalmoplegia), and in some cases skeletal muscle myopathy. Autosomal dominant PEO is caused by mutations in POLG, SLC25A4, and C10orf2. Ophthalmoplegia may also be associated with mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes, which are a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders (PMID: 23385875).


Results in 3-4 weeks. We do not offer a maternal cell contamination (MCC) test at the moment. We offer prenatal testing only for cases where the maternal cell contamination studies (MCC) are done by a local genetic laboratory. Read more.

Genes in the Neuro-Ophthalmology Panel and their clinical significance
GeneAssociated phenotypesInheritanceClinVarHGMD
APTXAtaxia, early-onset, with oculomotor apraxia and hypoalbuminemiaAR1039
C10ORF2Perrault syndrome, Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeAR31
C12ORF65Spastic paraplegia, Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiencyAR9
FRMD7Nystagmus, infantile periodic alternatingXL1475
GPR143Nystagmus, congenital, Ocular albinismXL14128
HESX1Septooptic dysplasia, Pituitary hormone deficiency, combinedAR/AD1125
MFN2Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseaseAD/AR43198
NDUFS1Mitochondrial complex I deficiencyAR1819
OPA1Glaucoma, normal tensionAD67357
OPA3Optic atrophy, 3-methylglutaconic aciduriaAD/AR712
OTX2Microphthalmia, syndromic, Pituitary hormone deficiency, combined, Retinal dystrophy, early-onset, and pituitary dysfunctionAD1665
PAX6Aniridia, cerebellar ataxia, and mental retardation (Gillespie syndrome), Keratitis, Coloboma, ocular, Cataract with late-onset corneal dystrophy, Morning glory disc anomaly, Foveal hypoplasia, Aniridia, Optic nerve hypoplasia, Peters anomalyAD49461
POLGPOLG-related ataxia neuropathy spectrum disorders, Sensory ataxia, dysarthria, and ophthalmoparesis, Alpers syndrome, Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeAD/AR71265
ROBO3Gaze palsy, horizontal, with progressive scoliosisAR1432
RRM2BProgressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeAD/AR4241
SALL4Acro-renal-ocular syndrome, Duane-radial ray/Okohiro syndromeAD1548
SETXAtaxia with oculomotor apraxia, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, juvenile, Spinocerebellar ataxiaAD/AR25185
SLC25A4Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeAD/AR1213
SOX2*Microphthalmia, syndromicAD2494
SPG7Spastic paraplegiaAR42104
TIMM8A*Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome, Jensen syndrome, Opticoacoustic nerve atrophy with dementiaXL1121
TK2Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeAR3844
TMEM126AOptic atrophyAR11
TUBB3*Fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformationsAD/AR1823
TYMPMitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeAR9892
WFS1Wolfram syndromeAR59343
  • * Some regions of the gene are duplicated in the genome leading to limited sensitivity within the regions. Thus, low-quality variants are filtered out from the duplicated regions and only high-quality variants confirmed by other methods are reported out. Read more.

Gene, refers to HGNC approved gene symbol; Inheritance to inheritance patterns such as autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive (AR) and X-linked (XL); ClinVar, refers to a number of variants in the gene classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic in ClinVar (; HGMD, refers to a number of variants with possible disease association in the gene listed in Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD, The list of associated (gene specific) phenotypes are generated from CDG ( or Orphanet ( databases.

Blueprint Genetics offers a comprehensive neuro-Ophthalmology panel that covers classical genes associated with acro-renal-ocular syndrome, ataxia - oculomotor apraxia, horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis, Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome, nystagmus, nystagmus 1, congenital, X-linked, optic atrophy, progressive external ophthalmoplegia, septo-optic dysplasia and Wolfram syndrome. The genes are carefully selected based on the existing scientific evidence, our experience and most current mutation databases. Candidate genes are excluded from this first-line diagnostic test. The test does not recognise balanced translocations or complex inversions, and it may not detect low-level mosaicism. The test should not be used for analysis of sequence repeats or for diagnosis of disorders caused by mutations in the mitochondrial DNA.

Please see our latest validation report showing sensitivity and specificity for SNPs and indels, sequencing depth, % of the nucleotides reached at least 15x coverage etc. If the Panel is not present in the report, data will be published when the Panel becomes available for ordering. Analytical validation is a continuous process at Blueprint Genetics. Our mission is to improve the quality of the sequencing process and each modification is followed by our standardized validation process. All the Panels available for ordering have sensitivity and specificity higher than > 0.99 to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and a high sensitivity for indels ranging 1-19 bp. The diagnostic yield varies substantially depending on the used assay, referring healthcare professional, hospital and country. Blueprint Genetics’ Plus Analysis (Seq+Del/Dup) maximizes the chance to find molecular genetic diagnosis for your patient although Sequence Analysis or Del/Dup Analysis may be cost-effective first line test if your patient’s phenotype is suggestive for a specific mutation profile. Detection limit for Del/Dup analysis varies through the genome from one to six exon Del/Dups depending on exon size, sequencing coverage and sequence content.

The sequencing data generated in our laboratory is analyzed with our proprietary data analysis and annotation pipeline, integrating state-of-the art algorithms and industry-standard software solutions. Incorporation of rigorous quality control steps throughout the workflow of the pipeline ensures the consistency, validity and accuracy of results. The highest relevance in the reported variants is achieved through elimination of false positive findings based on variability data for thousands of publicly available human reference sequences and validation against our in-house curated mutation database as well as the most current and relevant human mutation databases. Reference databases currently used are the 1000 Genomes Project (, the NHLBI GO Exome Sequencing Project (ESP;, the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC;, ClinVar database of genotype-phenotype associations ( and the Human Gene Mutation Database ( The consequence of variants in coding and splice regions are estimated using the following in silico variant prediction tools: SIFT (, Polyphen (, and Mutation Taster (

Through our online ordering and statement reporting system, Nucleus, the customer can access specific details of the analysis of the patient. This includes coverage and quality specifications and other relevant information on the analysis. This represents our mission to build fully transparent diagnostics where the customer gains easy access to crucial details of the analysis process.

In addition to our cutting-edge patented sequencing technology and proprietary bioinformatics pipeline, we also provide the customers with the best-informed clinical report on the market. Clinical interpretation requires fundamental clinical and genetic understanding. At Blueprint Genetics our geneticists and clinicians, who together evaluate the results from the sequence analysis pipeline in the context of phenotype information provided in the requisition form, prepare the clinical statement. Our goal is to provide clinically meaningful statements that are understandable for all medical professionals, even without training in genetics.

Variants reported in the statement are always classified using the Blueprint Genetics Variant Classification Scheme modified from the ACMG guidelines (Richards et al. 2015), which has been developed by evaluating existing literature, databases and with thousands of clinical cases analyzed in our laboratory. Variant classification forms the corner stone of clinical interpretation and following patient management decisions. Our statement also includes allele frequencies in reference populations and in silico predictions. We also provide PubMed IDs to the articles or submission numbers to public databases that have been used in the interpretation of the detected variants. In our conclusion, we summarize all the existing information and provide our rationale for the classification of the variant.

A final component of the analysis is the Sanger confirmation of the variants classified as likely pathogenic or pathogenic. This does not only bring confidence to the results obtained by our NGS solution but establishes the mutation specific test for family members. Sanger sequencing is also used occasionally with other variants reported in the statement. In the case of variant of uncertain significance (VUS) we do not recommend risk stratification based on the genetic finding. Furthermore, in the case VUS we do not recommend use of genetic information in patient management or genetic counseling. For some cases Blueprint Genetics offers a special free of charge service to investigate the role of identified VUS.

We constantly follow genetic literature adapting new relevant information and findings to our diagnostics. Relevant novel discoveries can be rapidly translated and adopted into our diagnostics without delay. These processes ensure that our diagnostic panels and clinical statements remain the most up-to-date on the market.

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ICD & CPT codes

CPT codes


ICD codes

Commonly used ICD-10 codes when ordering the Neuro-Ophthalmology Panel

H49.4Progressive external ophthalmoplegia
H47.2Optic atrophy

Accepted sample types

  • EDTA blood, min. 1 ml
  • Purified DNA, min. 5μg
  • Saliva (Oragene DNA OG-500 kit)

Label the sample tube with your patient’s name, date of birth and the date of sample collection.

Note that we do not accept DNA samples isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue.